CS302 Short Notes for Final term

Question: How can a D flip-flop can be made to toggle? 
Answer: A D flip-flop can be made to toggle by connecting Q' to D. 

Question: What is the difference between a counter and shift register ?
 Answer: A counter has a specified sequence of states, but a shift register does not.

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Question: How many outputs and inputs GAL22V10 have? 
Answer: The GAL22V10 has 22 inputs and 10 outputs. 

Question: What is an equivalent representation for the Boolean expression A' + 1 ? 
Answer: From the Boolean property A + 1 = 1, let A = A'.

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Question: What is K-map and why we used it? 
Answer: A Karnaugh map provides a pictorial method of grouping together expressions with common factors and therefore eliminating unwanted variables. The Karnaugh map can also be described as a special arrangement of a truth  table. 

Question: Each stage in a shift register represents how much storage capacity? 
Answer: one bit 

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Question: what are PLD's?How are the classified. 
Answer: The programmable logic devices (PLD's) are used in a lot of applications, and replace SSI and MSI circuits, due the space saving and reduce the number of devices in a certain design. 
A PLD is made of a matrix of AND and OR gates, that can be programmed to obtain certain logic functions. There are four types of devices that can be clasified as PLD's: 
a)The Programmable Read-Only Memory, PROM. 
b)The Programmable Logic Array , PLA. 
c)The Programmable Array Logic, PAL. 
d)The Generic Array Logic, GAL. 

Question: What are Flip-flops? 
Answer: The memory elements in a sequential circuit are called flip-flops. A flip-flop circuit has two outputs, one for the normal value and one for the complement value of the stored bit.

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Question: If an S-R latch has a 0 on the S input and a 1 on the R input and then the R input goes to 0, then what the latch will be? 
Answer: The latch wil be in reset condition. 

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