## CS301 Short Notes for Mid term from lec 1 to 22

### CS301 Short Notes for Mid Term

Here You can read and download CS301 - Data Structures Short Notes for Mid Term From Lecture 1 to 22 for Mid Term exam preparation. previously we shared MGT101 Short Notes for Mid term from Lec 1 to 2.

 cs301 short notes for mid term from lecture no 1 to 22 in pdf

#### CS301 Short Notes Sample Preview

What are the constraints ?

Constraint defines a limitation or restriction on resources of a system. In the computer, we have hard disk, memory and other hardware. We also have time to consider as a resource.

Suppose you are writing an algorithm to solve a given problem and you have disc space of 400 Mega bytes. So, here you have space constraint that your algorithm should use only the available space in an efficient way. A solution is considered to be an efficient solution if it solves the problem within its resource constraints.

What is lvalue?

In an assignment statement, lvalue refers to some memory location where some value can be stored.
Lvalue variable is written on left hand side of an assignment statement. For example, in the following statement, variable ‘var’ is lvalue variable and value 7 will be stored in it.
int var= 7;

What is “current” pointer ?

“Current” is a variable showing the status of currently focused element in array/list, for example if current = 5, it means that currently the focus is on element no. 5 in the array/list.

What is algorithm?

Algorithm is a finite sequence of steps for the solution of a problem.

WHAT IS ROLE OF ARRAYS IN DATA STRUCTURE?

Array is the most widely used data structure. It is also used as constituting integral part of other data
structures.

Array is mainly used to store similar data. For storing elements of indexed data, the particular method is array. For example, if you were storing information about each day in August, you would create an array with an index capable of addressing 31 values -- one for each day of the month. Think of a notebook with pages numbered 1 through 12. Each page may or may not contain information on it. The notebook is an array of pages. Each page is an element of the array 'notebook'.

Arrays can also be multidimensional - instead of accessing an element of a one-dimensional list, elements are accessed by two or more indices, as from a matrix or tensor. Arrays guarantee constant time read and write access,O(1) , however many lookup operations
(find_min, find_max, find_index) of an instance of an element are linear time, O(n). Arrays are very efficient in most languages, as operations compute the address of an element via a simple formula based on the base address element of the array.

HOW MANY TYPES AN DATA CAN BE ORGANIZE?

Data can be organized in two main ways.

1. Linear as in arrays, lists
2. Non Linear or Hierarchical like Trees
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## Summary Of Taking Action on Adolescent Literacy

### Summary Of Taking Action on Adolescent Literacy

Today we are going to discuss Summary Of Taking Action on Adolescent Literacy by Judith L. Irvin, Julie Meltzer and Melinda S. Dukes. You can also read Adolescent_Motivation.pdf file at the end of the article

 Summary Of Taking Action on Adolescent Literacy
3. Significance of Motivation And Engagement
4. Relationship between Motivation, Engagement And Achievement
5. Declining the Failure Cycle
6. Engagement Conditions
7. Necessary Actions For Engaging students
8. Creating Links to Student’s Lives
9. Developing The Idea Classroom
10. Concentrating On Relevant Literacy Tasks
11. Conclusion
12. Mind Mapping

### 1. Introduction of Adolescent Literacy

The practice and instructional guidelines have a far greater impact on acquiring skills in reading, listening, conveying concept and thinking.

It is necessary for the student to gain competency in literacy tasks as it improves proficiency level. Literacy is the most significant element in the development of adolescents. Adolescents practice to draft notes, formatting email, and documents, write blogs, understand and narrate the novel.

Although schooling administrators think that they spend more time with unnecessary activities (video games and TV) and resolving the key issues are the primary steps for the literacy development.

Since, the researcher Alvermann, (2003), Lee (2005), Smith & Wilhelm (2002) have concluded that the main threefold are necessary for the improvement and richness of adolescents literacy:
1. The theme should be according to the requirement of today’s world;
2. the theme should connect and stand firm with their interest;
3. writing and reading process should according to their frame of mind.
Previously we shared: Big Data Analytics Assignment | Data Analytics in Various Health Care Fields

### 2. Discussion on Adolescent Literacy

The question arises if adolescents of today’s world possess the skills of reading and writing competency, what is the reason of having difficulty in reading their history book and understanding the literature reviews from scholarly sources.

Possibly, the out-of-school literacy is inadequate to grasp the concept of academic writing text; teachers do not effort to bridge the gap for the development of academic skills with the collaboration of out-of-school literacy; schooling academic assignments are not engaging and the lack of expertise and improper guidelines are present.

The other essential element is engagement as it develops the good practicing habit and increases the proficiency interaction. In this chapter, the researcher explains the well-organized material that shows the relation between motivation need, engagement practice and goals for achievement.

Furthermore, proper strategies describe by the researcher as a tool for the literacy tasks.

### 3. Significance of Motivation And Engagement

The majority of schooling systems in the United States have neglected about the primary focus of education and significance of the improvement in academic reading and writing skills.

Because they have considered that students are already competent in the literacy skill. The other mindset of teachers is that it is too late to develop the literacy skills among the middle and high school students.

However, the poor academic writing and reading skills gradually lead to the declination of marks. Sometimes, adolescents hide their weakness of literacy skills and seek the help of others to deal with their academic work.

That is the reason, motivation and engagement are the most important activities which do not require the hard and fast effort to improve the literacy skills as these are interconnected consistent of a primary vehicle for literacy

### 4. Relationship between Motivation, Engagement And Achievement

Kamil (2003) describes “Motivation and engagement are critical for adolescent readers. Let suppose students are not motivated to read, research shows that they will simply not benefit from reading instruction” (p. 8).

The beginning concept of motivation leads to develop engagement. The process of improving reading and writing require the investment of time and effort. Only the most prominent adolescent's teachers implement to develop good relation with their students to motivate them for developing literacy skills.

In the absence of motivating factor, teachers fail to engage the student in the classroom literacy activities. Explicit teaching supports to filter the students’ performance; generate pointers to notify the mistakes and provides direction towards encouragement.

According to Guthrie & Wigfield (1997) and Roe (2001), teachers deal with two basic issues while working on the literacy skills of unenthusiastic students:
1. Difficulty of engagement for the academic purpose literacy challenge

### 5. Declining the Failure Cycle

Carly was showed a lack of interest in the development of her literacy skills. She needed the teacher support to motivate and engage her in the literacy development.

The skills development was not magical step rather it was step by step process as the administrator in her school expressed that they focus in highly standard education.

However, Ms. Warren focused on developing the classroom learning activity for the development of literacy skills.

### 6. Engagement Conditions

The literature review of varies research is supported the point that classroom environment and climate have far greater impact on engagement.

The other method of implementation is an engagement-instruction cycle. There were several key factors in the scenario of Kamal’s team that play the crucial role in engaging the team member with the reading and writing activity.

Students had an authority to choose the method for the representation of authentic information.

The experimental literature of Guthrie and Knowles’s (2001) drafted the seven elements for encouraging the motivation that is the utilization of conceptual framework, real world examples, exploring the direction, reading various texts, cognitive methodology, social participation and expressing the point of view.

### 7. Necessary Actions For Engaging students

The literature of researchers Meltzer (2002), Meltzer & Hamann (2004) created three significant points that can utilize by the teachers to motivate the English and literacy learners:

• Developing the background connection of knowledge with the lives experiences of students and the interesting material is produced to read.
• Creating the responsive environment of the classroom where students express themselves in term of learning acknowledgment, raising voice, choosing their tasks and reading the topics for strength the literacy skills.
• Group studies and interaction with reading materials that develop a good questions, conceptualization, visualization and clarification specifically in the completion of required tasks.

### 8. Creating Links to Student’s Lives

It is necessary for the teacher to develop the conceptual linked between student experience and text as it helps to promote the motivation element.

Furthermore, teachers should introduce the new knowledge of reading material; analyzing, observing and drafting texts are the primary priority of learning.

If the students have explored the reading purpose then it means they have enough knowledge related to background and can successful make the logical connection between reading and experience result they can persist the difficulties of text.

### 9. Developing The Idea Classroom

In the environment of the responsive classroom, the teachers focus towards the adolescents according to their expectations and choice.

Those adolescents that possess less literacy confidence, their motivation of literacy skills are completely depend on the judgment about the situation of the classroom environment and they consider themselves as the entity of time and effort investment.

Group discussion related to text is assumed as the collaborative learning procedures in the perspective of the classroom that helps and explains the diversified aspects of content areas.

Student Management System Project in C++

### 10. Concentrating On Relevant Literacy Tasks

According to the summary of the research of Alvermann (2001), “Adolescents want their work to matter, and they want to conduct an inquiry for reasons other than it being an assignment or an exercise.

Adolescents want their work to matter, and they want to conduct an inquiry for reasons other than it being an assignment or an exercise.

Authentic literacy tasks play into adolescents' needs to do things that are real and often prompt new effort for rehearsal, comprehension, discussion of content, planning, revision and editing tasks, summarizing, and other literacy skills because these activities are being carried out for purposes other than “just passing it into the teacher.

Authentic literacy tasks include adolescents reading with younger students or creating books on tape or authoring books for them, designing Web sites, writing newspaper articles, and conducting and reporting upon inquiries that reflect real societal concerns” (Alvermann, 2001, pp. 676-690).

#### 11. Conclusion:

Furthermore, the use of latest technology is considered as the highly motivating factor for the improvement in literacy skills of adolescents. As, the various features of revision using software’s, graphical and sound effect; highlighting the chunks promote the literacy skills.

Promoting critical literacy is assumed as the significant hidden key for the motivation of reader and writer having low-esteem. The development of meta-cognitive skills enable the students to observe their own passage and reading in an efficient manner.

The students who possess the high-quality of meta-cognitive skills generally prefer to use the strategies of “fix-up” during the listening and visualization process. According to Allen (1999), the development and improvement of active and passive vocabulary is knotted with the content structure and comprehension.

The most advantageous approach used by the middle and high schools are the comprehension, prÃ©cis, new concepts, and support students to communicate with the deeper level understanding of key concepts.

In the last, producing good questions, the role of leader and gaining adolescent participation are essential actions for the adolescent's literacy.

## Big Data Analytics Assignment | Data Analytics in Various Health Care Fields

### What is Big Data?

The publications seem to relate more to healthcare and information systems more than computer science. Big data is an important topic of discussion in IT, research, medical field, economics and business field. The term big refers, large or immense; and Data signifies raw information’s that when analyzed and processed provides idea and meaning to object or matter. Both these words when combined together provide a clear picture of big data that is large and can be in structured or unstructured form. Here structured denotes, data with high degree of organization, whereas unstructured refers to unorganized data that lack proper model. Previously we sh

 Big Data Analytics Assignment | Data Analytics in Various Health Care Fields
1. Published Papers Regarding Data Analytics in Various Health Care Field
2. Big Data Analytics Theories and Techniques In Health Care
3. Installing a Big Data Analytics framework (Hadoop or Spark)
4. Installing R - Step by Step
5. The Functionality Of R With Regard To Health Care
Also

#### Uses of Big data analytics

Big data is defined as the raw data obtained from number of medium; studying these data, analyzing it and obtaining meaningful result out of them is called big data analytics. Below are some of the uses of big data analytics.
• Enhancing the performance
• Improvement in Research and health care
• Strengthening Security and finding criminals
• To bring development in nation

#### Advantages of Big Data Analytics

• Error detection
• Predicting events
• Reduces time and effort
• Increases efficiency and accuracy
• Progress of company

#### Who uses Big Data?

Presently, there are number of companies that have developed software to use big data to compete in the growing market. Beside this, these useful tools are also used in different fields to develop sense from big data specific to the finding.

These are the few popular companies that uses big data to fulfill customer requirements and accomplish their goal.
• HP
• Oracle
• Microsoft
• Splunk
• Amazon

### 1. Published Papers Regarding Data Analytics in Various Health Care Fields

This paragraph will discuss the results found in this paper. The publications seem to relate more to healthcare and information systems more than computer science, since computer science involves professionals and doctors only in healthcare analytics, paying less attention to involve individuals and patients, as we believe involving individuals will lead for better decision making and more accurate results for the future. Most healthcare analytics papers were published in the US as it shown in geographical distribution in Figure 7, and linking this results to the research approach distribution in Figure 8, we can notice that most publications in healthcare analytics were quantitative studies, so if we take a look again, we can conclude and relate that to the reason of why papers were decreased in the last 2 years, because quantitative studies are very expensive and costly, as well as it is focusing on involving professionals in healthcare analytics systems rather than patients, which will effect on having many inaccurate studies results, and create many struggles with healthcare analytics and kills it’s future, therefore researchers will stop publishing papers as they lost their spirit in healthcare analytics, so we recommend to involve individuals, as it would help society to adopt and improve healthcare data analytics systems, as well as running these systems efficiently and smoothly. (Alkhatib, Talaei-Khoei & Ghapanchi, 2016)

### 2. Big Data Analytics Theories and Techniques In Health Care.

Theory suggests that big data analysis technology, coupled with the proper business model (a topic for another blog), may be a disruption enabler in at least two ways:
1. Enabling technologies make powerful data analytics affordable and accessible. Inexpensive data storage, massive computing power, and widespread information transfer infrastructures make predictive analytics available to small players than ever before. Patient population analytics, for example, used to be available only to the largest and wealthiest of health systems who could hire talented teams of statisticians. Now, solutions exist that are affordable even for small providers.
2. Accessible and affordable analytics drive operating efficiencies. One third to one half of U.S. health care spend is on ineffective or inefficient care– hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Theory-based big data solutions can help change this. For example, theory-based (rather than simply correlative) population health management analytics updated with the latest best clinical practices from medical journals could help test, validate, and adopt new standards of care much more quickly than the average adoption timeline of 17 years and in so doing help obsolete outdated, wasteful, and expensive treatment methods While perhaps not as headline-making as “The End of Theory,” “Save Hundreds of Billions of Dollars With Better Health Outcomes” is pretty close. (Bean, 2016)

### 3. Installing a Big Data Analytics framework (Hadoop or Spark)

#### Step 1: Install Java

Firstly you need to install java successfully and then run the following commands.
• sudo apt-get update
• sudo apt-get install oracle-java7-installer
To check whether the Java is successfully installed or not, you need the run the command.

· \$scala -version

“”If the Java is installed then you will get to see the following:

java version “1.7.0_71”

Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_71-b13)

Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM (build 25.0-b02, mixed mode)””

#### Step 2: Install Scala

• sudo mkdir /usr/local/src/scala
• sudo tar -xvf scala-2.11.7.tgz -C /usr/local/src/scala/
nano .bashrc
• export SCALA_HOME=/usr/local/src/scala/scala-2.­11.7
• export PATH=\$SCALA_HOME/bin:\$PATH
.bashrc
To check whether the Java is successfully installed or not, you need the run the command.

· \$scala -version

If the Scala is successfully installed then you will get to see.

“”Scala code runner version 2.11.6 — Copyright 2002-2013, LAMP/EPFL””

#### Step 3: Install Git

Next step is to install Git. Command is given below.
• sudo apt-get install git

#### Step 4: Build Spark

• tar -xvf spark-1.4.1.tgz
• sbt/sbt assembly

#### Issues and Recommendation

Although Spark is reported to work up to 100 times faster than Hadoop in certain circumstances, it does not provide its own distributed storage system. Spark does not include its own system for organizing files in a distributed way (the file system) so it requires one provided by a third-party. For this reason many Big Data projects involve installing Spark on top of Hadoop, where Spark’s advanced analytics applications can make use of data stored using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). (Marr, 2016)

### 4. Installing R - Step by Step

1. Once you have installed R on a Windows computer (following the steps above), you can install an additional package by following the steps below:
2. To start R, follow either step 2 or 3:
3. Check if there is an “R” icon on the desktop of the computer that you are using. If so, double-click on the “R” icon to start R. If you cannot find an “R” icon, try step 3 instead.
4. Click on the “Start” button at the bottom left of your computer screen, and then choose “All programs”, and start R by selecting “R” (or R X.X.X, where X.X.X gives the version of R, eg. R 2.10.0) from the menu of programs.
5. The R console (a rectangle) should pop up.
6. Once you have started R, you can now install an R package (eg. the “rmeta” package) by choosing “Install package(s)” from the “Packages” menu at the top of the R console. This will ask you what website you want to download the package from, you should choose “Ireland” (or another country, if you prefer). It will also bring up a list of available packages that you can install, and you should choose the package that you want to install from that list (eg. “rmeta”).
7. This will install the “rmeta” package.
8. The “rmeta” package is now installed. Whenever you want to use the “rmeta” package after this, after starting R, you first have to load the package by typing into the R console:
> library("rmeta")

#### Issues and recommendation

In my healthcare data, I wanted to convert dollar values to integers (ie. \$21,000 to 21000), and I used gsub . wanted to focus on the Payment estimate.
• So I used the melt() function that is part of reshape2.
• With my data melted, I wanted to get the average estimate for heart attack patients by state.
Now that my data is in perfect shape to visualize with a map overlay, ggplot2 and maps are two other R packages that would be useful (Parmar, 2016)

### 5. The Functionality Of R With Regard To Health Care

Researcher introduces the utilization of R as a tool for analyzing their data. In the past 5 years since the inception of this book, the number of R applications has exploded. It is not possible to do justice to R’s diverse capabilities in a few words. Using R to analyze the data, because of the ease of interactive exploration and making visualizations. (Seefeld & Linder, 2016)

#### Refrences:

Alkhatib, M., Talaei-Khoei, A., & Ghapanchi, A. (2016). Analysis of Research in Healthcare Data Analytics. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.01354.

Bean, D. (2016). Big Data: The end of theory in healthcare? - Christensen Institute. Christensen Institute. Retrieved 31 October 2016, from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/blog/big-data-the-end-of-theory-in-healthcare/

Marr, B. (2016). Forbes Welcome. Forbes.com. Retrieved 31 October 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2015/06/22/spark-or-hadoop-which-is-the-best-big-data-framework/#1bfc431d532c

Seefeld, K. & Linder, E. (2016). Statistics Using R with Biological Examples. https://cran.r-project.org. Retrieved 31 October 2016, from https://cran.r-project.org/doc/contrib/Seefeld_StatsRBio.pdf

Parmar, D. (2016). R Packages: A Healthcare Application. Datasciencecentral.com. Retrieved 31 October 2016, from http://www.datasciencecentral.com/profiles/blogs/r-packages-a-healthcare-application

## How to Check and Pay Your Traffic E-Challan Online | Pakistan

### Check and Pay Your Traffic E-Challan

Today we will discuss about How to Check and Pay your Traffic E-Challan Online in Pakistan. As E-Challan service has been recently launched by Punjab Safe Cities Authority (PSCA), many people still do not know how to check and pay their E-Challan online and sometimes they are not even aware that they have been charged for traffic violation. Previously we shared How to Earn Money Online in Pakistan (Guide for Students)

In this article we will guide you through how to check your E-Challan Online and then How can you pay your traffic E-Challan without any inconvenience.

Today we will discuss:
• What is Traffic E-Challan
• Role of Traffic E-Challan System
• Why E-Challan didn't received ? Reasons
• How to Check Your Traffic E-Challan online
• How to Pay Your Traffic E-Challan Online
• Traffic E-Challan System Future Developments
• Traffic E-Challan System Progres

#### What is Traffic E-Challan

Traffic E-Challan is an "Electronic Traffic Violation Ticket system" and is sent to the violators’ addresses registered against their vehicle IDs. The E-Challan contains the details regarding how the driver violated the traffic rules with the picture of the vehicle posted on it.

#### Role of Traffic E-Challan System

The system identifies the violators of the traffic rules with the help of modern Automatic Vehicle Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) cameras, which PSCA installed across different roads of the city.

#### Why E-Challan didn't received ? Reasons

Punjab Safe Cities Authority (PSCA) has Successfully launched the E-Challan system in Lahore, under the directives of the Lahore High Court (LHC). This System is a landmark achievement. But as this System is new, there are some problems which we hope will be fixed Soon.

If You have violated any traffic rule and remain unaware of the fact that you have been charged with a fine from Traffic E-Challan System.

This could happen for two reasons:
1. You have shifted from your previous residence registered against your vehicle ID.
2. You haven’t officially changed it in the documents
3. You do not receive the E-Challan at your residence due to some technical issue.
So, in case if you are wondering that you have violated any rule?

Here are some instructions regarding how to check and pay your E-Challan Online.

### How to Check Your Traffic E-Challan online

1. First of all you need to visit the PSCA E-Challan Website to check your traffic violation status online.
2. Then PSCA website's home page, two blocks will appear in front of you, one for your vehicle number and the other for your CNIC.
3. By filling the correct details of your vehicle registration and CNIC number you can check and confirm either you have been charged with a fine or not. You can also print the E-Challan document using your home printer for record purpose.

 Pay Traffic E-Challan online - website preview

### How to Pay Your Traffic E-Challan Online

There are two ways to pay your Traffic E-Challans in Lahore (Pakistan).
1. You can pay your E-Challan manually, by downloading the E-Challan document from the PSCA website, printing  and submitting in the National Bank of Punjab (NBP) with the required amount mentioned in your e-challan online.
2. You can pay your e-challan by the NBP’s ATM machines.

 Traffic E-Challan Printed Online Slip

#### Traffic E-Challan System Future Developments

Currently, The PSCA is also working to develop a mobile app for citizens, to easily check and pay your E-challans online without leaving your home .

#### Traffic E-Challan System Progress

Punjab Safe Cities Authority (PSCA) has issued over 75,000 e-challans to traffic rule violators, since the launch of Electronic Challan on September 23. These 75,000 E-Challans have resulted in the addition of PKR 7 million to the national treasury so far. The authorities claim it to be the first scheme of its kind in the country launched with the help of the Punjab Information Technology Board (PITB)