September 2017

Project Report On E-Business

Dear Students, Here You can read and download COM619 Project Report On E-Business - Final Project.
  • Introduction to Topic:
In the emerging global economy, e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The integration of information and communications technology (ICT) in business has revolutionized relationships within organizations and those between and among organizations and individuals. Specifically, the use of ICT in business has enhanced productivity, encouraged greater customer participation, and enabled mass customization, besides reducing costs.

COM619 Project Report On E-Business - Final Project
COM619 Project Report On E-Business - Final Project
With developments in the Internet and Web-based technologies, distinctions between traditional markets and the global electronic marketplace such as business capital size, among others-are gradually being narrowed down. The name of the game is strategic positioning, the ability of a company to determine emerging opportunities and utilize the necessary human capital skills (such as intellectual re-sources) to make the most of these opportunities through an e-business strategy that is simple, workable and practicable within the context of global information and new economic environment. With its effect of leveling the playing field, e-commerce coupled with the appropriate strategy and policy approach enables Small and medium scale enterprises to compete with large and capital-rich businesses.

On another plane, developing countries are given increased access to the global Marketplace, where they compete with and complement the more developed economies. Most, if not all, developing countries are already participating in e-commerce, either as sellers or buyers. However, to facilitate e-commerce growth in these countries, the relatively underdeveloped information infrastructure must be improved.

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History of Internet

In the 50’s and early 60’s, prior to the widespread inter-networking that led to the Internet, most communication networks were limited by their nature to only allow communications between the stations on the network. Some networks had gateways or bridges between them, but these bridges were often limited or built specifically for a single use. One prevalent computer networking method was based on the central mainframe method, simply allowing its terminals to be connected via long leased lines. This method was used in the 1950s by Project RAND to support researchers such as Herbert Simon, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, when collaborating across the continent with researchers in Santa Monica, California, on automated theorem proving and artificial intelligence. The Internet system was developed and ready in the Late 1980s, but The Cold War held up the progress. When it ended in 1992, the internet slowly became main stream. By the end of the decade, millions were using it for business, education and pleasure.

The Internet was designed in part to provide a communications network that would work even if some of the sites were destroyed by nuclear attack. If the most direct route was not available, routers would direct traffic around the network via alternate routes.

The early Internet was used by computer experts, engineers, scientists, and librarians. There was nothing friendly about it. There were no home or office personal computers in those days, and anyone who used it, whether a computer professional or an engineer or scientist or librarian, had to learn to use a very complex system.

Is E-Commerce The Same as E-Business?

While some use e-commerce and e-business interchangeably, they are distinct concepts. In e-commerce, information and communications technology (ICT) is used in inter-business or inter-organizational transactions (transactions between and among firms/organizations) and in business-to-consumer transactions (transactions between firms/organizations and individuals).

In e-business, on the other hand, ICT is used to enhance one’s business. It includes any process that a business organization (either a for-profit, governmental or non-profit entity) conducts over a computer-mediated network. A more comprehensive definition of e-business is: “The transformation of an organization’s processes to deliver additional customer value through the application of technologies, philosophies and computing paradigm of the new economy.”
  • Three primary processes are enhanced in e-business
  1. Internal management processes, which include employee services, training, internal information-sharing, video-conferencing, and recruiting. Electronic applications enhance information flow between production and sales forces to improve sales force productivity. Workgroup communications and electronic publishing of internal business information are likewise made more efficient.
  2. Production processes, which include procurement, ordering and replenishment of stocks; processing of payments; electronic links with suppliers and production control processes, among others.
  3. Customer-focused processes, which include promotional and marketing efforts, selling over the Internet, processing of customers’ purchase orders and Internal management processes, which include employee services, training, internal information-sharing, video-conferencing, and recruiting. Electronic applications enhance information flow between production and sales forces to improve sales force productivity. Work group communications and electronic publishing of internal business information are likewise made more efficient. payments, and customer support, among others.

10 Ideas to Start Your Own Online Internet Business 

Become a freelancer – Do you have any specific skill? Sell it. Go to to find the job opportunities posted there.

Start information website – Do you have a passion to research any niche topic? Gather it, process it, rewrite it and start a new informational website on the researched topic.

Participate in affiliate marketing (sell others product) – Why don’t you sell manufacturer's or marketer's product? To be precise, sell other’s product.

Sell an ad space – If you have a website or blog sell an ad space from it. If you don’t have, try having one exclusively made for selling ad space.

Sell your own old stuffs through EBay – Start selling your product or your neighbor's or friend's product through EBay.

Create a Niche blog – Do you Blog for Fun? No don’t blog it. Blog to generate income out of it, get hired by companies to write blog for them. or create your own niche blog (this might over lap with any one of the above strategy).

Sell your services – If you have a talent in any particular domain, and then sell it as a service. Be an Online service provider. Example: Online Brokers (this might also overlap)

Create e-books - on any subject of your interest and sell it across various channels like EBay, Amazon, etc

What Makes the Internet So Powerfull

  • The Internet is the lowest cost system ever developed to communicate with a potential audience of hundreds of millions of people all over the world. Even locally, the cost of a simple Web site is usually less than the cost of a modest ad in a business telephone directory. A Web site can also give more information than a telephone directory ad, including color photos, detailed descriptions of products and services, and price information that can be changed at any moment, for any reason, instead of waiting for a printed directory's next publication cycle. 
  • As a news medium, the Internet is faster and more flexible than a newspaper or magazine. A story can be added to a Web site instantly at any time of the day or night. There are no deadlines (except self-imposed ones) for Internet news. The "printing press" is always on, you might say. Even television news, aside from a few 24-hour news channels, must usually wait for scheduled news broadcast times instead of breaking into entertainment programming whenever a new story comes along. Television is also constrained by its necessarily linear information delivery format. It must tell a story, then another story, then take a break for advertising, then tell another story, and so on, in sequence. A viewer cannot choose to view only a few stories that he or she finds interesting, which may occupy only five minutes out of a 30-minute newscast. On the Internet, a reader is free not only to choose to view just those stories in which he or she is most interested, but also gets to choose the order in which he or she sees them. If sports scores are the highest item on today's agenda, click and there's the sports section, as easy as turning a newspaper page. Another click and there's the score from the game that just ended, possibly with video highlights only one more click away.

What is E-Bussiness

E-business (electronic business), derived from such terms as "e-mail" and "e-commerce," is the conduct of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners. One of the first to use the term was IBM, when, in October, 1997, it launched a thematic campaign built around the term. Today, major corporations are rethinking their businesses in terms of the Internet and its new culture and capabilities. Companies are using the Web to buy parts and supplies from other companies, to collaborate on sales promotions, and to do joint research. Exploiting the convenience, availability, and world-wide reach of the Internet, many companies, such as, the book sellers, have already discovered how to use the Internet successfully.

E-business is more than just having a web presence to facilitate buying and selling. Frank Jones, VP of IBM Corporation, provides this definition: “E-business is exploiting the combined power of the internet and information technology to fundamentally transform key business strategies and processes”.

The most common implementation of E-business is as an additional, or in some cases primary, storefront. By selling products and services online, an e-business is able to reach a much wider consumer base than any traditional brick-and-mortar store could ever hope for. This function of E-business is referred to as ecommerce, and the terms are occasionally used interchangeably.

An E-Business may also use the Internet to acquire wholesale products or supplies for in-house production. This facet of E-Business is sometimes referred to as eprocurement, and may offer businesses the opportunity to cut their costs dramatically. Even many E-Businesses which operate without an electronic storefront now use eprocurement as a way to better track and manage their purchasing. revenue from 5% in 2000 to 10% in 2007 . Asia-Pacific e-commerce revenues are projected to increase from $76.8 billion atIn addition to buying and selling products, e-business may also handle other traditional business aspects. The use of electronic chat as a form of technical and customer support is an excellent example of this. An e-business which uses chat to supplement its traditional phone support finds a system which saves incredible amounts of time while providing opportunities unavailable through traditional support. By using virtual computer systems, for example, technical support operators can remotely access a customer's computer and assist them in correcting a problem. And with the download of a small program, all pertinent information about the hardware and software specifications for a user's computer may be relayed to the support operator directly, without having to walk a customer through personally collecting the data. In the past few years, virtually all businesses have become, to some degree or another, an e-business. The pervasiveness of Internet technology, readily available solutions, and the repeatedly demonstrated benefits of electronic technology have made e-business the obvious path. This trend continues with new technologies, such as Internet-enabled cell phones and PDAs, and the trend of e-business saturation will most likely continue for some time.

International Data Corp (IDC) estimates the value of global e-commerce in 2000 at US$350.38 billion. This is projected to climb to as high as US$3.14 trillion by 2007.

IDC also predicts an increase in Asia’s percentage share in worldwide e-commerce year-end of 2001 to $338.5 billion by the end of 2004. Asia-Pacific e-commerce revenues are projected to increase from $76.8 billion at year-end of 2001 to $338.5 billion by the end of 2004.

How to Make Money with E-bay Auctions

How to Make Money with E-bay Auctions
How to Make Money with E-bay Auctions
Question : How do those people earn full-time incomes selling on eBay?

Answer : Professional eBay Power Seller Jason James has put together a great website that reveals the exact step-by-step methods he uses to make over $11,000 in profit per month right from his kitchen.

If you are tired of all the "Get rich on eBay" hype and simply want the facts about staring an eBay business, then this site is exactly what you're looking for. Jason shows you where to find hot products to sell, exactly how to sell these products, tips to maximize your profits and more (great for beginners).

Jason has been selling products on eBay for over 4 years and is a respected eBay Power Seller. His website, "The Auction Resource Network" is a no holds barred look at the inner workings of a his very successful eBay business from the inside out.

Step 1: Register as an eBay seller for free

If you've never used eBay before, you'll soon find that it is very easy (and fun) to use. It can even get addicting! eBay shows you the basics of making money with their user-friendly system. In just a few minutes, you'll be ready to start Making Money on eBay
  • Register Free as an eBay Seller
Step 2: Make More Money with Step-by-Step eBay Guides

How to Start a Business on eBay

These 2 guides tell you everything you need to know to start and grow your eBay business:
  • See How to Make Money Faster with Entrepreneur's Start-Up Guide 
  • All about the different types of online auctions 
  • The most profitable items to sell online 
  • How to use eBay tools to sell more on eBay
  • Inside secrets from successful eBay entrepreneurs 

Learn how to make money on eBay

Step 3 : Find Hot eBay Products at Wholesale
  • Sell Products on eBay Without Purchasing Products Up Front 
If you want to sell products on eBay without buying them first, use a wholesale supply & drop shipping company like Doba.

It's simple: you can list hot-selling products on eBay (from Sony, Apple, Nautica, KitchenAid & more!), get paid on sales and have the items shipped to your customers directly from Doba.


If you have determination and patience you are sure to prosper in an E-Business. According to me, Its easy to start an E-business. There are ways in which there is no cost at all for starting it, only few hours of dedication and smart thinking. Creativity also plays an important role as its all about being unique and different that will attract valuable customers.

The most important aspect for me is Marketing of the E-business. If this is carried out effectively no one can stop you from earning a lakh per month.


The feeding frenzy surrounding e-business may be new to this generation, but the same patterns of behavior occurred in the development of earlier technologies, including the steam engine, telegraphy, automobiles, airplanes, and radio. Similar to those culture-changing technologies, many lessons were learned during the e-commerce gold rush. Surely, its confusing, too many thought everything “e” was a magic bullet. But the technology that fueled that initial Internet bubble is what fuels the successful businesses of today. So, in the long term, e-business changed how business is conducted and it is here to stay. We are looking at the future business of the world.

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ACC311 Mid Term Solved Past Papers

Dear Students of Fundamentals of Auditing, Here You can read and Download ACC311 Mid Term Solved Past Paper of 2009. Past Paper Questions are in .pdf file. We have added sample page preview of the file. Download Link is given at the end.

ACC311 Mid Term Solved Past Papers
ACC311 Mid Term Solved Past Papers
You Can Also Download ACC311 Solved Mid Term Papers, ACC311 Short Notes, ACC311 Assignment Solutions, ACC311 Lecture Wise Questions Answers Files, ACC311 Solved MCQs, ACC311 Solved Quiz, ACC311 Solved Mid Term Subjective Papers , ACC311 Solved Mid Term Objective Papers from Virtual Study Solutions For Preparation of Mid Term Papers.

ACC311 Mid Term Solved Past Paper Sample Page

You can see the Sample Page Preview of ACC311 Fundamentals of Auditing Mid Term Solved Past Paper given below:

ACC311 Fundamentals of Auditing Mid Term Solved Past Paper 2009
ACC311 Fundamentals of Auditing Mid Term Solved Past Paper 2009

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CS410 Solved MCQs Mega File for Mid Term

Dear Students, here you can read and Download CS410 Visual Programming Solved MCQs for Mid Term Mega File for Preparation of Mid Term Examination.

CS410 Solved MCQs Mega File for Mid Term
CS410 Solved MCQs Mega File for Mid Term
Recommended : Virtual University Admission Schedule and Procedure Fall 2017
You Can Also Download CS410 Solved Mid Term Papers, CS410 Short Notes, CS410 Assignment Solutions, CS410 Lecture Wise Questions Answers Files, CS410 Solved MCQs, CS410 Solved Quiz , CS410 Solved Mid Term Subjective Papers , CS410 Solved Mid Term Objective Papers from Virtual Study Solutions For Preparation of Mid Term Papers.

CS410 Solved MCQs Mega File Sample Page

You can see the Sample Page Preview of CS410 Visual Programming Solved MCQs Mega File below:
CS410 Visual Programming Solved MCQs Mega File Preview
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Turbo C++ Compiler

Dear Students, Here we will discuss How to download,install, set directories and working procedure of Turbo C++ Compiler. if You are new to C++ Programming and wondering what is a Compiler? and why do you need it?So let me clear few things first.

What is a Compiler

In C++ language program compiler converts high level language to low level language and generates results or we can also say that:
"A compiler is a language translator which converts one language to other language"

Compilers for C++ Programming

These Days there are lots of compilers for C++ but usually the given list list of compilers are used in beginning to learn programming.
  • Turbo C++ 
  • Borland 
  • Code blocks C++
  • Dev C++
  • Visual studio 
if you are beginner of programming i will recommend you use Turbo C++.

Recommended : Child Friendly Tools to Teach Programming to Kids

How to Download Turbo C++ Compiler

First all you will need to Download Turbo C++ Compiler. Download Link is given below:

How to Install Turbo C++ Compiler

Step 1: Download Turbo C++ from the link given above.
Step 2: save the file.
Step 3: Open the file, find INSTALL.exe from its contents and double click to open it.
How to Install Turbo C++ Compiler
Step 4: A new window should open up now, press ENTER.
How to Install Turbo C++ Compiler step 4
Step 5: Enter the drive letter you want to install turbo c on and Press ENTER.
How to Install Turbo C++ Compiler step 5
Step 6: Now on following screen type the source path or Press ENTER to select the default path.
How to Install Turbo C++ Compiler step 6
Step 7: After this just Press F9 on the screen that follows to continue installation.
How to Install Turbo C++ Compiler step 7
Success !!
Congratulations. You have successfully Download and Installed turbo c++ compiler on your computer.

How to Set Directories in Turbo C++ Compiler

Now As You have installed the Compiler. Lets learn How To set Directories in Turbo C++ Compiler.

Step 1: open turbo C
Step 2: Go to options from menu bar.
Step 3: select directories.
then compiler will show menu option like that

How to Set Directories in Turbo C++ Compiler
How to Set Directories in Turbo C++ Compiler
Step 4: In first two options write the path where u have installed compiler.Step 5: In second two options write the path where u want save your file or program.

Working Procedure of Turbo C++ Compiler

Finally we are ready to use Turbo C Compiler to begin C++ Programming. It is very important to understand how compiler works during the execution of program.Turbo C++ Compiler works from top to bottom and left to write.

it works like our typing method we type word by word left to write and top to bottom.

Note : This tutorial is for Installation of Turbo C++ on windows XP 32-bit.

How to Download Turbo C++ Compiler on win 7

If you are a using windows 7(64 bit OS) on your computer. First of All you have to download Dos Box to run Turbo C++

Download Dos Box

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Blue Whale Game Incident in Pakistan

Dear Students, Recently Blue Whale Game Almost Took the Lives of Two Boys of Pakistan. Two more people from Peshawar started playing the game. Fortunately, they were stopped as the game objectives became worse.
Dr. Imran Khan from Peshawar’s Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) was contacted by two men from Mardan that played the game. The two men, aged 19 and 21 years old respectively, got in touch with the doctor as they suffered from depression after playing the Blue Whale game. Previously we shared HEC Shuts Down 110 PhD Programs in Pakistan.

Blue Whale Game Almost Took the Lives in Pakistan
Blue Whale Game Almost Took the Lives in Pakistan
The two men started playing the game a few days ago. However, as the challenges got progressively weird and bizarre they stopped midway and sought medical attention.

Dr. Imran didn’t reveal their names in order to safeguard his patients’ privacy. However he shared that one of the patients was an IT expert who was trying to ascertain whether the game was actually life threatening or not.

About The Blue Whale Challenge

Blue Whale Challenge game surfaced after reports of more than 130 teenagers in Russia who were being asked to commit suicide. Blue whales knowingly commit suicide by beaching themselves, which led the game’s creators calling it the Blue Whale challenge.

The participants are told to complete a series of tasks over the course of 50 days by closed social media groups or game curators. In the beginning, the challenges are simple and easy to finish, like being asked to not talk to anyone for a day or to go outside at 3 am. As mentioned earlier the tasks get increasingly bizarre, telling players to self harm (carve a whale into their arm for example) or worse.

On the 50th day they’re asked to commit suicide.
Mentally Trapped

Dr. Imran says that most people that start playing the game have a history of mental illnesses. He adds,

People start suffering from depression because game moderators warn the players that if they don’t complete the assigned tasks, their families would be harmed,

People are often afraid that the moderators have access to their cell phone data and can use it for illegal purposes.

Recommended : How Much Data YouTube Videos Use on Average

Blue Whale Game Victims in Pakistan

Another case of a Blue Whale victim was also reported at the KTH where a 16 year old girl got to the last challenge but stopped. Dr. Azaz Jamal from KTH’s psychiatric ward says that she was a regular computer user and a techie.

She was warned by the moderator that if she didn’t kill herself, she would be killed instead.

How to Stay Safe from Blue Whale Game

  • Avoid Suspicious Links and Social Groups
The doctors have advised that you should avoid starting the challenge just for fun and not follow any suspicious links on shady websites. He also asked the parents to keep an eye on their children especially if they spend a lot of time on computers on mobile phones.

According to an IT expert, the game is available for download on Apple and Google App stores. Links to the game are being shared on WhatsApp groups, which makes it progressively harder to block the game. If you click on them the game is downloaded on your phone and the game admins get into your smartphone through it.

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HEC Shuts Down PhD Programs 

Dear Students, Recently In Pakistan over 110 PhD programs across various public and private universities have been closed due to poor quality. The information was provided by Dr Mukhtar Ahmed, who is the HEC chairman, in a seminar conducted to discuss Higher Education Trends and prospects in Pakistan. Previously we shared HEC Launched New Education Testing Service From Spring 2017.
HEC Shuts Down 110 PhD Programs in Pakistan
HEC Shuts Down 110 PhD Programs in Pakistan
“We will not tolerate corruption in academia even though the HEC is under a lot of pressure from those with influence in Pakistan”, he added.

Quality of education in Pakistan

Dr Mukhtar Ahmed , the HEC chairman said that the HEC’s current focus is to improve the quality of education imparted in Pakistan while ensuring that academic research being done is of use to Pakistan and society at large.
“There is no use in racing to get listed in rankings and journals with higher impact factor if there is no impact or practical outcome of the generated knowledge.”
It took HEC and PEC over 7 years to get an international engineering membership, he revealed. This will help Pakistani engineering students to get a job in any country in the world without having to pass equivalence tests or undertaking any other exams.

Recommended : Pakistani Universities to be the Part of CPEC Consortium of Business Schools

Ahmed said:

We are working on various partnerships and improving the overall standard of education in Pakistan rather than focusing on the numbers game. Numbers don’t mean anything if the students are not well equipped for the professional life”

While the focus is on quality rather than quantity, 2016 was still a record year for publications from Pakistan as over 12,000 came out of the country. There is a strict no plagiarism policy and a focus on research has started to bear fruit, however, there is still a long way to go before Pakistan can match standards set in the West, he said.

Recommended : 4 Pakistani Universities ranked in Top 1000 in the World

Universities and Enrolled Students in Pakistan

Before the HEC was set up in 2002, there were only 59 universities in Pakistan and most of them were located in major cities. Around 275,000 students were enrolled with female representation at a poor 32%.

On contrast, now there are 188 universities in Pakistan right now and around 1.3 to 1.4 million students are enrolled. If students in affiliated colleges and universities are added to the equation, the number rises to well above 3 million.

via ProPakistani

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Virtual University Admissions Fall 2017

Dear Students, Here You can read complete Details of Latest VU Admissions Schedule an Procedure. Virtual University of Pakistan (VU) offers admission twice in an academic year namely spring in the month of January/February and fall in the month of August/September each year. Virtual University has announced the admission for Fall 2017. Previously we shared Virtual University Need Base Scholarships Fall 2017.

Virtual University Admission Schedule and Procedure Fall 2017
Virtual University Admission Schedule and Procedure Fall 2017
Recommended: Virtual University Academic Calendar Fall 2017

Please Note : Last Date to Apply for Fall 2017 Admissions is Tuesday September 19, 2017

VU Admission Schedule - Fall 2017

Admissions Open - Fall 2017SundayAugust 13, 2017
Option to apply for Course Exemption / Transfer of Course CreditsSundayAugust 13, 2017
Orientation for newly admitted studentsMonday to FridayAugust 28 - October 13, 2017
Option to Apply for the Change / Conversion of Study Program for existing StudentsMondaySeptember 04, 2017
Last Date to apply for Course Exemption / Transfer of CreditsTuesdaySeptember 19, 2017
Last Date to Apply for Fall 2017 AdmissionsTuesdaySeptember 19, 2017
Course Selection Link Open for enrollment Fall 2017MondaySeptember 25, 2017
Entry Test for MS/M.Phil/PhD Programs AdmissionsThursdaySeptember 28, 2017
Interview of Successful [Qualified Entry Test] Candidates for PhD Program AdmissionMondayOctober 09, 2017
Last Date to apply for Need based ScholarshipTuesdayOctober 10, 2017
Last date to apply for Change of Study Program for existing and newly admit studentsFridayOctober 13, 2017
Commencement of Classes - Fall 2017MondayOctober 16, 2017
Last date for Course Selection to add/drop/replace course(s)WednesdayOctober 25, 2017

Please Note:

  • The University reserves the right to make any change(s) in Admission Schedule, as required.
  • MS/M.Phil/PhD programs’ admission will be processed after VU Entry Test on merit basis (limited seats are available in Biological Sciences programs).
  • M.Sc. Zoology / BS Biotechnology programs’ admission will be processed on merit basis (limited seats) after the due date of admissions.
Recommended : How to Change Your VU Study Program - Complete Guide

How to Apply for Admission in VU - Procedure

A candidate (Pakistani National) can obtain admission application form either from Virtual Campus or from VU website and apply for admission (subject to eligibility criteria) by submitting filled admission form with requisite documents including fee paid challan/Demand Draft (in original) to the nearest Virtual Campus or by mailing at Registrars’ Office (Admissions).

Virtual University Main Campus Address:
Virtual University of Pakistan M.A. Jinnah Campus,
Defense Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore.
Tel: 042-111-880-880, Ext. 342~348, 441~443.

Upon receipt of filled admission application form at Registrar’s office, it is processed after necessary verification subject to admission eligibility criteria and candidate is intimated firstly through an email (if provided in admission application form). Secondly, via an email to his/her campus (in case campus based student) and finally, by mailing a hard copy admission offer letter and VU information material at his/her mailing address. A list of admitted candidates is also published and updated during admission session at VU website under admission link.

Please Note: MS/M.Phil Admissions will be processed on merit basis after VU Entry Test.

If you have any query or question in mind relate to Admissions in VU. you can ask in comments. Don't forget to Like us Facebook. Thank You.

VU Need Base Scholarships Fall 2017

Dear Students, Now You can apply for Virtual University Need Base Scholarships Fall 2017. You are informed that need based scholarship for Fall 2017 has been opened for deserving students. If you are a deserving student and you are eligible to apply for need based scholarship, please apply at your earliest. Previously we share How to Change Your VU Study Program - Complete Guide  As Per Latest Update the last date to apply for need based scholarship is October 10, 2017.

Virtual University Need Base Scholarships Fall 2017
Virtual University Need Base Scholarships Fall 2017
Recommended : Virtual University Final Term Result Spring 2017

Virtual University Scholarships

The University intends to provide scholarships to students:
  • Merit-based scholarship: to encourage healthy academic competition among students 
  • Need-based scholarship: to provide financial assistance to deserving students.
Recommended : Virtual University Academic Calendar Fall 2017

How to Apply for VU Need Base Scholarship

For Need based scholarships send email to

VU Need Base Scholarship Important Note

  • Amount and number of scholarships are subject to availability of funds.
  • The decisions of the Management Committee will be deemed to be final.
  • These rules may be added to or modified as required from time to time.

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MCM101 Solved Subjective Questions

Dear Students, here you can read and download MCM101 - Introduction to mass communication important Solved Subjective Questions for preparation of Mid Term Exams. Download Link for MCM101 - Introduction to mass communication Mid Term Past Paper is also given at the end. wish you good Luck. Previously we shared All MCM Subjects Mid Term Past Papers Collection

MCM101 Introduction to mass communication Solved Subjective Questions
MCM101 Introduction to mass communication Solved Subjective Questions 
Recommended : Virtual University Academic Calendar Fall 2017

MCM101 Subjective Questions with Answers

Question: What is the difference between Mass Media Communication and Mass Communication?
Answer: The main difference between the mass communication and communication is that. Mass communication occurs when a small number of people send messages to a large anonymous and usually heterogeneous audience through the use of specialized communication media. In mass communication you have to communicate to a large number of people through TV, radio, newspaper and Internet etc. It simply means that when you are communicating a large number of people, you obviously need some medium that can address the issue of concern to large number of people. Without the use of technology it is quite impossible to communicate to number of audience. When we use a term” Mass” it means communicating with a large number of audience. But as far as simple communication is concerned, it is infect “A sending, giving or exchanging of information through a common system of symbols, sign, or behavior” It is not necessary that in simple communication people require a large number of people. Communication can occurs between two or more person through verbally and nonverbally, interpersonally or interpersonally.

Question: What is communication?
Answer: Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs...” an act or instance of transmitting and: "a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior ... also: exchange of information". Communication can be perceived as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings or ideas towards a mutually accepted goal or direction.

Question: What are the main elements of a communication process?
Answer: A message: what need to be communicated? A Sender: the person who has something to communicate A receiver: the person who will receive the message Encoding: verbal and non-verbal convention of communication Decoding: reading by the receiver of the encoding done by the messenger Channel: the means of communication
Question: What is Mass communication?
Answer: Mass communication occurs when a small number of people send messages to a large anonymous and usually heterogeneous audience through the use of specialized communication media.

Question: What is the difference between journalism and mass communication?
Answer: Journalism was the term limited to print media while with the arrival of electronic media and e-media, the field of journalism got a new look and a new name i.e. mass communication.

Question: What is meat by a communication model?
Answer: A model is a systematic representation of an object or event in idealized and abstract form. Models are somewhat arbitrary by their nature. The act of abstracting eliminates certain details to focus on essential factors. . . . The key to the usefulness of a model is the degree to which it conforms--in point-by-point correspondence--to the underlying determinants of communicative behavior.” “Communication models are merely pictures; they’re even distorting pictures, because they stop or freeze an essentially dynamic interactive or transitive process into a static picture.” Models are metaphors. They allow us to see one thing in terms of another.

Question: What is meant by frame of reference in communication?
Answer: It represents the Perspective or point-of-view of individuals that serves as a lens through which they may analyze and interpret media. Life experiences (e.g., gender, family background, socioeconomic status, education level, political leanings, career, regional/geographic affiliation, religious affiliation) contribute to the frame of reference.

Question: What is Culture?
Answer: Culture refers to the beliefs, values, behavior and material objects that, together, form a People’s way of life. Culture has two basic components: non material culture, or the intangible creations of human society, and material culture, the tangible products of human society.

Question: How culture is important in communication process?
Answer: Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values, motives, aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given some dramatic differences across cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space, and privacy, the opportunities for miss-communication while we are in cross-cultural situations are plentiful. When we discuss communication and culture, we should be aware of the total spectrum of communication including language, non-verbal communication, customs, perceived values, and concepts of time and space. Do all tourists identify with Pakistani traditions and values? Likely not. But the more interesting question is: Why not? The answer lies in the simple fact that most tourists come from different cultures: some vastly different like those from United States, others less different, such as tourists from India or Bangladesh. Even if tourists share the same language, they may have much different customs and values.

Question: What is meant by convergence of media?
Answer: Technologically rich societies have entered the digital age, and media industries are grappling with new opportunities - and threats - afforded by what is called "convergence". Media people tend to get very excited about convergence, because it holds so much promise. The melding together of different media, incorporating new personalized services is both impressive and overwhelming. The adoption of high-performance computers, shift to digital platforms, and creation of high-speed computer networks have brought us new ways of doing things. Old barriers of time and space are practically eliminated. You can view, hear, or read virtually anything, anywhere, anytime. The old definitions that provided separation between Radio, TV, Cable, Newspapers, and Film have gone or are going forever. The 1990's brought ownership convergence, creating media conglomerates like Disney, Viacom, and Sony. From the consumer view, the Internet has recently changed our favorite delivery systems - Newspapers now provide video, TV offers interactive chat, and radio has web-cams.

Question: How Public Relation and Advertising are taken as form of mass communication?
Answer: Public relation is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image. Advertising is also a form of mass communication. It involves a process of transmission of information by the manufacturer or a seller of a product or service to modify or stimulate the behavior of the buyer to buy a particular product. Both use mass media tools to fulfill their objectives

Question: What is theory?
Answer: A theory suggests a relationship between different phenomenon’s. Theories allow us to reduce the complexity of reality into an abstract set of principles, which serve as models to compare and contrasts different types of realities.

Question: What is meant by globalization?
Answer: Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.

Question: What is photography?
Answer: Method of recording permanent images by light on to a chemically sensitive material is called photography. It was developed in the 19th century through the artistic aspirations of two Frenchmen, Nicéphore Niepce and Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, whose combined discoveries led to the invention of the first commercially successful process, the daguerreotype in 1837.

Question: What is classed as New Media?
Answer: Web Sites including Blogs Email CD/DVD Electronic kiosks Virtual worlds Interactive Television Internet Telephony Mobile Pod-cast Hypertext Fiction

Question: What is meant by stereotyping?
Answer: Stereotypes are generalizations, or assumptions that people make about the characteristics of all members of a group based on an image (often wrong) about what people in that group are like. For example, one study of stereotypes revealed that Americans are generally considered to be friendly, generous, and tolerant, but also arrogant, impatient, and domineering. Asians, on the other hand, were expected to be shrewd and alert, but reserved. Clearly, not all Americans are friendly and generous; and not all Asians are shrewd. If you assume you know what a person is like, and don't look at each person as an individual, you are likely to make errors in your estimates of a person's character.

Download MCM101 Mid Term Past Papers

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VU Final Term Result Spring 2017

Dear Students, Finally the Wait of Final Term Spring 2017 will be over Soon. Virtual University (VU) Final Term Spring 2017 Result will be Announced in current week of September 2017. (i.e, between 13 to 15 September). We will also update you on our Facebook Page . When Result will be announced ,You need to login to your VULMS using your Student ID and Password. Click on Grade Book and Click Final term Result Spring 2017.

Virtual University Final Term Result Spring 2017
Virtual University Final Term Result Spring 2017

Moreover Course Selection Link will Open for enrollment in Virtual University Fall 2017 Semester on Monday, 18 September 2017. for more important Dates 

Please read : Virtual University Academic Calendar Fall 2017

Our aim is to provide Assignments Solution, GDB Solution, Solved MCQs , Solved Quizzes, Handouts in PDF File and VU solved and unsolved Mid Term / Final term Past Papers .

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Important Note:

  1. The Transcript of Record as well as other related certificates of all graduating (whose degree requirements are completed) students will be dispatched within 7-10 working days except those who have RL cases, Outstanding VU dues, Pending Paper Rechecking requests etc.
  2. A student who wants to get his/her paper(s) rechecked is advised to visit the Student Services section and request for Paper Rechecking on VULMS within the prescribed period.
  3. Result of Practical Exams (CHE301,BT102,BIO303,BIO302,BIO301,BIO204,BIO203,BIO202,BIO201,MTH704) will be announced soon.
In case of any result related query, you may contact us by sending email to

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How to change your VU Study Program

Dear VU Students ! Here we will discuss how to change your study program if you are studying from Virtual University of Pakistan and somehow you have came to know that you should change your study program then don't worry. we will guide you through this. Keep Reading...

How to Change Your VU Study Program - Complete Guide
How to Change Your VU Study Program - Complete Guide
Recommended : Virtual University Academic Calendar Spring 2017

How to change your Study Program Instructions:

Here you can read step by step instructions to change your VU Study Program.

Change Your Study Program Step 1:

First of All You go to and Login with your VULMS ID & Password.

Change Your Study Program Step 2:

Than Login your VU LMS and go to Student Services and Select Study Program Conversion.

Change Your Study Program Step 3:

You will see this image, shown below:

Change Your Study Program VULMS Page Preview
Change Your Study Program VULMS Page Preview

Change Your Study Program Step 4:

Fill in the Form.
Current Degree Program: Bachelors, Associate Degree Program, BS etc .
Current Study Program: for example BSc Computer Science etc.
New Degree Program: for example Associate Degree Program, Bachelor, BS.
New Study Program: for example MIT, BS 4 year etc.
In the End you write Reason of Study Program: for example Why you want to change Study Program.
Reason Example:

i want to go with computer science and software programming. I had selected Web Design and Development due to some miss guides.As my interest is in computer science and programming and i want to do masters in computer science. so i m selecting it.

Change Your Study Program Step 5:

Your status will be shown Pending so you need to pay the fee.
Study Program Conversion Fee : Rs.2000
Pay the fee voucher and upload this Paid Voucher. 
Your Study Program will be Changed in few days with the confirmation Email. keep an eye on your email till then.

Recommended : Pakistani Universities to be the Part of CPEC Consortium of Business Schools

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