Showing posts with label Rules and Tips. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Rules and Tips. Show all posts

Virtual Universirty Fee voucher for Spring 2017

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Virtual Universirty Semester Fee Voucher For Spring 2017

Dear Virtual University Students, You are being informed that full semester Fee voucher for Spring 2017 have been issued. Please Check Your VULMS.

Virtual University has issued first voucher (semester enrollment fee + one course fee) for Spring, 2017 to continuing students with due date April 25, 2017.

Students may convert full semester voucher into installments through their LMS login, procedure is as under:

How to View You Fee Voucher for Semester Spring 2017

  • Log on to your VULMS.
  • Go to “Account book”.
  • Click on the installments option against full semester voucher and make installments as admissible.
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List Of Successful New Candidates Appeared In VU Entry Test

SOP for making installments of full semester voucher

Two vouchers are generated for each semester:
  • First consists of Semester enrollment fee plus one course fee (to be paid in lump sum)
  • Second voucher consists of Full semester course selection less one course fee. The second voucher is convertible to installments if amount of this voucher is greater than Rs. 2,500 in case of local students and $200 in case of overseas students.
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Due Dates of Fee Voucher Installments

The due dates of the installments for the semester are as under: 
  • 1st Installment 10-May-17
  • 2nd Installment 12-Jun-17
  • 3rd Installment 10-Jul-17
  • 4th Installment 10-Aug-17 
  • 5th Installment 11-Sep-17
If You Liked this Post please share it with your fellow students. Thank You

HTML Tags with Examples Complete Tutorial

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Introduction to HTML - Complete Tutorial

In this Tutorial we will learn HTML Tags with Example. This is very helpful for Students Virtual University studing CS101 - introduction to Computing Subject.

CS101 - HTML Tags with Examples Complete Tutorial
CS101 - HTML Tags with Examples Complete Tutorial
In this HTML Tutorial we will cover following Topics with Examples.
  • What is HTML
  • What is HTML Tags
  • What is HTM or HTML Extension
  • What is HTML Headings
  • What is HTML Paragraph
  • What is HTML Link
  • What is HTML Image
  • What is HTML Element
  • What is HTML Element Syntax
  • What is HTML Attributes
  • What is HTML Rule/Line
  • What is HTML Comments
  • What is HTML Paragraph
  • What is HTML Line Breaks
  • What is HTML Output 
  • What is HTML Text Formatting
  • What is HTML Style
  • What is HTML Style Attribute
  • What is HTML Images
  • What is Image Tag and the Src Attribute
  • What is the syntax of defining an image
  • What is Alt Attribute
  • How to View HTML Source code

What is HTML

HTML is a language for describing web pages.
HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language
A markup language is a set of markup tags
HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages

HTML Introduction

Example

<html>

<body>

<h1>My First Heading</h1>

<p>My first paragraph.</p>

</body>

</html>

Try it yourself »

What is HTML Tags

HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags
  • HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html>
  • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>
  • The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag
Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags
HTML Documents = Web Pages
  • HTML documents describe web pages
  • HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text
  • HTML documents are also called web pages
The purpose of a web browser (like Internet Explorer or Firefox) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page:

<html>

<body>

<h1>My First Heading</h1>

<p>My first paragraph</p>

</body>

</html>

Explaination of HTML tags:
  • The text between <html> and </html> describes the web page
  • The text between <body> and </body> is the visible page content
  • The text between <h1> and </h1> is displayed as a heading
  • The text between <p> and </p> is displayed as a paragraph 

HTML - Lets Get Started

What You Need
  • You don't need any tools to learn HTML at W3Schools.
  • You don't need any HTML editor
  • You don't need a web server
  • You don't need a web site
Recommended : CS101 Short Notes For Mid Term From Lec 1 To 22

How to Edit HTML

In this tutorial we use a plain text editor (like Notepad) to edit HTML. We believe this is the best way to learn HTML.

However, professional web developers often prefer HTML editors like FrontPage or Dreamweaver, instead of writing plain text.

Create Your Own Test Web

If you just want to learn HTML, skip the rest of this chapter.

If you want to create a test web on your own computer, just copy the 3 files below to your desktop.

(Right click on each link, and select "save target as" or "save link as")
After you have copied the files, you can double-click on the file called "mainpage.htm" and see your first web site in action.

Recommended : CS101 Short Notes For Final Term From Lecture 22 To 45

Use Your Test Web For Learning
We suggest you experiment with everything you learn at W3Schools by editing your web files with a text editor (like Notepad).

Note: If your test web contains HTML markup tags you have not learned, don't panic. You will learn all about it in the next chapters.

What is HTM or HTML Extension

When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html extension. We use .htm in our examples. It is a habit from the past, when the software only allowed three letters in file extensions.

With new software it is perfectly safe to use .html.

What are HTML Headings

HTML headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags.
Heading Example
  • <h1>This is a heading</h1>
  • <h2>This is a heading</h2>
  • <h3>This is a heading</h3>
Try it yourself »

What is HTML Paragraph

HTML paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag.

HTML Paragraphs Example
  • <p>This is a paragraph</p>
  • <p>This is another paragraph</p>

What is HTML Link

HTML links are defined with the <a> tag.

HTML Link Example

<a href="http:///www.w3schools.com">This is a link</a>

Try it yourself »

Note: The link address is provided as an attribute.

(You will learn about attributes in a later chapter of this tutorial)

What is HTML Image

HTML images are defined with the <img> tag.

HTML Image Example

<img src="w3schools.jpg" width="104" height="142" />

Try it yourself »

Note: The name and the size of the image are provided as attributes.

(You will learn about attributes in a later chapter of this tutorial)

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What is HTML Element

HTML documents are defined by HTML elements.

HTML Elements

An HTML element is everything from the start tag to the end tag:

Start tag *  Element content  End tag *
<p>  This is a paragraph </p>
<a href="default.htm" > This is a link </a>
<br />

* The start tag is often called the opening tag. The end tag is often called the closing tag.

What is HTML Element Syntax

  • An HTML element starts with a start tag / opening tag
  • An HTML element ends with an end tag / closing tag
  • The element content is everything between the start and the end tag
  • Some HTML elements have empty content
  • Empty elements are closed in the start tag
  • Most HTML elements can have attributes

(You will learn about element attributes in the next chapter of this tutorial)

Nested HTML Elements

Most HTML elements can be nested (can contain other HTML elements).

HTML documents consist of nested HTML elements.

HTML Document Example

<html>

<body>

<p>This is my first paragraph</p>

</body>

</html>

The example above contains 3 HTML elements.

Example Explained
The <p> element:

<p>This is my first paragraph</p>
  • The <p> element defines a paragraph in the HTML document
  • The element has a start tag <p> and an end tag </p>
  • The element content is: This is my first paragraph
The <body> element:

<body>

<p>This is my first paragraph</p>

</body>
  • The <body> element defines the body of the HTML document
  • The element has a start tag <body> and an end tag </body>
  • The element content is another HTML element (a paragraph)
The <html> element:

<html>

<body>

<p>This is my first paragraph</p>

</body>

</html>
  • The <html> element defines the whole HTML document.
  • The element has a start tag <html> and an end tag </html>
  • The element content is another HTML element (the body)
Note : Don't Forget the End Tag

Most browsers will display HTML correctly even if you forget the end tag:

<p>This is a paragraph
<p>This is a paragraph

The example above will work in most browsers, but don't rely on it. Forgetting the end tag can produce unexpected results or errors.

Note: Future version of HTML will not allow you to skip end tags.

Empty HTML Elements

HTML elements without content are called empty elements. Empty elements can be closed in the start tag.

<br> is an empty element without a closing tag (it defines a line break).

In XHTML, XML, and future versions of HTML, all elements must be closed.

Adding a slash to the start tag, like <br />, is the proper way of closing empty elements, accepted by HTML, XHTML and XML.

Even if <br> works in all browsers, writing <br /> instead is more future proof.

HTML Tip: Use Tags in Lowercase

HTML tags are not case sensitive: <P> means the same as <p>. Plenty of web sites use uppercase HTML tags in their pages.

W3Schools use lowercase tags because the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends lowercase in HTML 4, and demands lowercase tags in future versions of (X)HTML.

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What is HTML Attributes

Attributes provide additional information about HTML elements.

HTML Attributes
  • HTML elements can have attributes
  • Attributes provide additional information about the element
  • Attributes are always specified in the start tag
  • Attributes come in name/value pairs like: name="value"
Attribute Example

HTML links are defined with the <a> tag. The link address is provided as an attribute:

Example

<a href="http://www.w3schools.com">This is a link</a>

Try it yourself »

(You will learn about links in a later chapter of this tutorial)

Note : Always Quote Attribute Values

Attribute values should always be enclosed in quotes.

Double style quotes are the most common, but single style quotes are also allowed.

In some rare situations, like when the attribute value itself contains quotes, it is necessary to use single quotes:

name='John "ShotGun" Nelson'

HTML Tip: Use Lowercase Attributes

Attribute names and attribute values are case-insensitive.

However, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends lowercase attributes/attribute values in their HTML 4 recommendation

Newer versions of (X)HTML will demand lowercase attributes.

HTML Attributes Reference

A full list of legal attributes for each HTML element is listed in our:

Complete HTML Reference

Below is a list of some attributes that are standard for most HTML elements:

Attribute
Value
Description
class
class_rule or style_rule
The class of the element
id
id_name
A unique id for the element
style
style_definition
An inline style definition
title
tooltip_text 
A text to display in a tool tip

What is HTML Heading

Headings are important in HTML documents.

HTML Headings

Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags.

<h1> defines the largest heading. <h6> defines the smallest heading.

Headings Example

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<h2>This is a heading</h2>
<h3>This is a heading</h3>

Try it yourself »

Note: Browsers automatically add an empty line before and after headings.

Headings Are Important
  • Use HTML headings for headings only. Don't use headings to make text BIG or bold.
  • Search engines use your headings to index the structure and content of your web pages.
  • Since users may skim your pages by its headings, it is important to use headings to show the document structure.
  • H1 headings should be used as main headings, followed by H2 headings, then less important H3 headings, and so on.
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What is HTML Line

The <hr /> tag is used to create an horizontal rule (line).

HTML rule/line Example:

<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<hr />
<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<hr />
<p>This is a paragraph</p>

Try it yourself »

What is HTML Comments

Comments can be inserted in the HTML code to make it more readable and understandable. Comments are ignored by the browser and are not displayed.

Comments are written like this:

HTML Comment Example
<!-- This is a comment -->

Try it yourself »

Note: There is an exclamation point after the opening bracket, but not before the closing bracket.

What is HTML Paragraph

HTML documents are divided into paragraphs.
HTML Paragraphs

Paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag.

HTML Paragraph Example

<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<p>This is another paragraph</p>

Try it yourself »

What is HTML Line Breaks

Use the <br /> tag if you want a line break (a new line) without starting a new paragraph:

HTML line break Example
<p>This is<br />a para<br />graph with line breaks</p>

Try it yourself »


The <br /> element is an empty HTML element. It has no end tag.

<br> or <br />

In XHTML, XML, and future versions of HTML, HTML elements with no end tag (closing tag) are not allowed.

Even if <br> works in all browsers, writing <br /> instead is more future proof.

What is HTML Output 

You cannot be sure how HTML will be displayed. Large or small screens, and resized windows will create different results.

With HTML, you cannot change the output by adding extra spaces or extra lines in your HTML code.

The browser will remove extra spaces and extra lines when the page is displayed. Any number of lines count as one space, and any number of spaces count as one space.
HTML Tag Reference

W3Schools' tag reference contains additional information about HTML elements and their attributes.

HTML Tag     Description
<p>             Defines a paragraph
<br />          Inserts a single line break.

What is HTML Text Formatting

This text is bold

This text is big

This text is italic

This is computer output

This is subscript and superscript

Try it yourself »

HTML Formatting Tags

HTML uses tags like <b> and <i> for formatting output, like bold or italic text.

These HTML tags are called formatting tags.
Refer to the bottom of this page for a complete reference.

HTML Text Formatting Tags

Tag
Description
<b>
Defines bold text
<big>
Defines big text
<em>
Defines emphasized text 
<i>
Defines italic text
<small>
Defines small text
<strong>
Defines strong text
<sub>
Defines subscripted text
<sup>
Defines superscripted text
<ins>
Defines inserted text
<del>
Defines deleted text
<s>
Deprecated. Use <del> instead
<strike>
Deprecated. Use <del> instead
<u>
Deprecated. Use styles instead

HTML "Computer Output" Tags

Tag
Description
<code>
Defines computer code text
<kbd>
Defines keyboard text 
<samp>
Defines sample computer code
<tt>
Defines teletype text
<var>
Defines a variable
<pre>
Defines preformatted text
<listing>
Deprecated. Use <pre> instead
<plaintext>
Deprecated. Use <pre> instead
<xmp>
Deprecated. Use <pre> instead

HTML Citations, Quotations, and Definition Tags

Tag
Description
<abbr>
Defines an abbreviation
<acronym>
Defines an acronym
<address>
Defines an address element
<bdo>
Defines the text direction
<blockquote>
Defines a long quotation
<q>
Defines a short quotation
<cite>
Defines a citation
<dfn>
Defines a definition term

What is HTML Style

The style attribute is a new HTML attribute. It introduces CSS to HTML.

Look! Styles and colors
  • This text is in Verdana and red
  • This text is in Times and blue
  • This text is 30 pixels high
Try it yourself

What is HTML Style Attribute

The purpose of the style attribute is:

To provide a common way to style all HTML elements.

Styles was introduced with HTML 4, as the new and preferred way to style HTML elements. With HTML styles, styles can be added to HTML elements directly by using the style attribute, or indirectly by in separate style sheets (CSS files).

You can learn everything about styles and CSS in our CSS tutorial.

In our HTML tutorial we use the style attribute to introduce you to HTML styles.

HTML Style Examples

style="background-color:yellow"

style="font-size:10px"

style="font-family:Times"

style="text-align:center"

Deprecated Tags and Attributes

In HTML 4, some tags and attributes are defined as deprecated. Deprecated means that they will not be supported in future versions of HTML and XHTML.

The message is clear: Avoid the use of deprecated tags and attributes.

These tags and attributes should be avoided:
Tags
Description
<center>
Defines centered content
<font> and <basefont>
Defines HTML fonts
<s> and <strikeout>
Defines strikeout text
<u>
Defines underlined text

Attributes
Description
align
Defines the alignment of text
bgcolor
Defines the background color
color
Defines the text color
For all the above: Use styles instead.

HTML Style Examples:
Background Color

<body style="background-color:yellow">

The style attribute defines a style for the <body> element.

The new style attribute makes the "old" bgcolor attribute obsolete.

Font Family, Color and Size
<p style="font-family:courier new; color:red; font-size:20px">

The style attribute defines a style for the <p> element.

The new style attribute makes the old <font> tag obsolete.

Text Alignment

<h1 style="text-align:center">

The style attribute defines a style for the <h1> element.

The new style attribute makes the old "align" attribute obsolete.

What is HTML Images

This example demonstrates how to display images in your Web page.
Insert images

This example demonstrates how to display images from another folder or another server in your Web page.
Insert images from different locations

(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)

What is Image Tag and the Src Attribute

In HTML, images are defined with the <img> tag.

The <img> tag is empty, which means that it contains attributes only and it has no closing tag.

To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute. Src stands for "source". The value of the src attribute is the URL of the image you want to display on your page.

What is the syntax of defining an image:


<img src="url" />

The browser puts the image where the image tag occurs in the document. If you put an image tag between two paragraphs, the browser shows the first paragraph, then the image, and then the second paragraph.

What is Alt Attribute

The alt attribute is used to define an "alternate text" for an image. The value of the alt attribute is an author-defined text:

<img src="boat.gif" alt="Big Boat" />

The "alt" attribute tells the reader what he or she is missing on a page if the browser can't load images. The browser will then display the alternate text instead of the image. It is a good practice to include the "alt" attribute for each image on a page, to improve the display and usefulness of your document for people who have text-only browsers.

Note: If an HTML file contains ten images - eleven files are required to display the page right. Loading images take time, so my best advice is: Use images carefully.

HTML Images More Examples

Background image
This example demonstrates how to add a background image to an HTML page.

Aligning images
This example demonstrates how to align an image within the text.

Let the image float
This example demonstrates how to let an image float to the left or right of a paragraph.

Adjust images to different sizes
This example demonstrates how to adjust images to different sizes.

Display an alternate text for an image
This example demonstrates how to display an alternate text for an image. The "alt" attribute tells the reader what he or she is missing on a page if the browser can't load images. It is a good practice to include the "alt" attribute for each image on a page.

Make a hyperlink of an image
This example demonstrates how to use an image as a link.

Create an image map
This example demonstrates how to create an image map, with clickable regions. Each of the regions is a hyperlink.

Turn an image into an image map
This example demonstrates how to turn an image into an image map. You will see that if you move the mouse over the image, the coordinates will be displayed on the status bar.

Image Tags

HTML Tags      Description
<img>            Defines an image
<map>           Defines an image map
<area>           Defines a clickable area inside an image map

How to View HTML Source code

Have you ever seen a Web page and wondered "Hey! How did they do that?"

To find out, click the VIEW option in your browser's toolbar and select SOURCE or PAGE SOURCE. This will open a window that shows you the HTML code of the page.

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